Linocut is a... Description, features, history and developmentFine art includes a large number of various techniques. Some of them appear along with technological progress, its inventions and discoveries. As the subject of our conversation today. In this article we will tell you what is linocut, a lot of interesting facts about her. Let's start with General definitions.
That's called a linocut?Engraving is the engraving on linoleum, printed illustrative form of the so-called letterpress. The image is cut out by the artist on canvas linoleum, then printed on paper, carton.
Linoleum is a great material for large prints. The artists mainly use cloth thickness 2.5-5 mm. the tools Needed are no different from those that are used to create engravings of the longitudinal knife for cutting small items, longitudinal and angled chisel for large.
Engraving is the product, which uses the same inks as that for printing a woodblock images. A certain amount of pigment rolled on the surface of the material altmuslim roller. It is necessary to monitor compliance with the required amount of applied dye it a lot, it can fill in small parts, when a little - there will be ugly gaps on the print.
history of the World linocutsthe history of the linocut starts at the turn of XIX-XX centuries - it was then invented linoleum. For the first time material for the creations he began in 1905, it was used by German artists of the "Bridge". Go to the new them made, not only curiosity: to use techniques of prints in large format print square cut down a tree, the traditional mechanical woodcuts, was not enough.
Engraving is a technique in which worked such artists as:
- A. Matiss;
- F. Masurel;
- M. Escher;
- V. Angelo;
- D. Erickson;
- H. Tompkins;
- S. Power;
- A. Botelho;
- T. billman;
- I. Gnezdovo;
- E. Russe;
- K. Schmidt-Rotluf;
- H. Juvonen;
- U. Kermoud;
- F. Bleil;
- group Folly Cove Designers, and so on.
Later he developed the art of not only monochrome, but color linocuts: used 4-7 matrices, which makes impression. In the U.S. a pioneer of the trend in the forties of the last century was C. Anderson. Used technology coloring linocut with gouache, watercolor, and other pigments.
Today in the direction of the artists work:
- B. Fike;
- G. Baselitz;
- s. Donwood and others.
history linocutsthe First in our country began to create prints on the linoleum N. Sheverdyaev, pupil of V. mate. His works were exhibited in Paris in 1907. The development of linocuts can be traced in the works of I. Pavlov. He began to apply the technique in 1909 for registration of covers of children's books and creating illustrations for them. So engraving was replaced previously used the engraver and lithographic printing.
In 1914, was released calendar "Tsar bell" in 1916 with 12 coloured linocuts of the authorship of I. Pavlov. Then the Carver began to apply the technique and decoration of the bindings of the books. Linocut became more and more popular in Russia: the lack of zinc, required for zincography.
In Russia, a new technique has been successfully applied for the creation of book illustrations and easel prints. In his work, it was used:
- A. Deyneko;
- Leonid Ilyin;
- B. Kustodiev;
- Dmitry Mitrokhin;
- G. Zakharov;
- D. Bryukhanov;
- K. Kostenko;
- I. Golitsyn;
- Vladimir Falileev;
- Vladimir Favorsky;
- V. A. zamirailo;
- P. Staronosov;
- A. Kravchenko and others.
TechniqueConsider the linocut as a technique of engraving. It is one of the most simple in execution, similar to woodcuts. The process of the artist's work looks like this:
- Comes with cork linoleum, the thickness of which is approximately equal to 3 mm, With the tracings on it is transferred to the image thumbnail.
- the contour using different chisels, knives, the artist cuts out shapes for your image.
- the Next step is rolled with a roller of the special pigmented paint (pigment + liquid binder) on the relief part of the image.
- coloured side linoleum, printed on paper, with the result that it appears in the contrasting picture it black (or another color) and the background white (or other colors of paper).
Required materialsAfter we answered the question "Linocut - how to do it?", let us examine the materials necessary to create works:
- Linoleum. Produced special material for creativity, which easy to work with the graver. For home creativity of, you can use commercial linoleum, however, the tools it can behave unpredictably.
- To operate a set of chisels (gravers, graver). Basically it uses the following form of their metal tip: corner, box-shaped, curved and flat.
- Paint - Neustrashimy, moderately thick. Under such characteristics falls printing, acrylic, gouache, special pigment for linocuts. For acrylic additionally required drying retarder. To print a picture on fabric, need textile paint.
- For applying dye used rollers: printing classic valmassy (glycerine gelatin), normal rubber for Wallpaper.
- the Material for impression - paper, cardboard, fabric, wood. As for paper, use varieties with a density of 160 g/m<sup>2</sup>.
- Press. For the mass production of drawings use the press, etching press. At home - a rolling pin, spoon, roller.
- Advanced artists use a drying retarder, a medium for the fixation of the dye on the fabric.
Distinctive features linocutsCritics note that aquatint is a technique used by the artists whose work is expressive, concise, clearly. Also highlighted in the following distinctive features of the art method:
- Nedorogaya material.
- lighter, compared to other techniques of engraving, working with color.
- Compliance material to the cutter.
- Decorative images is higher than for wood engraving: barcode image more smooth, clean, smooth.
- Contrast woodcuts: bar are not sharp, but smooth, wider, rounded at the ends, but with rigid boundaries.
Features black-and-white linocutsHighlight features create black and white prints:
- Use well-dried, smooth and rather thick (2.5 mm) linoleum. Great value for artists is the material of the old apartments. For small prints it is replaced with plastic PVC.
- Black ink on material is applied to the image. Thick lines are drawn with a pen, thin brush. Sometimes the artist just prints the finished picture on the linoleum.
- For cutting a texture is used a dotted manner.
- Image is cut at cut woodcuts.
- Print - the use of a special grinding machine or a brush.
Features colored linocutsSelect the key features here:
- For each color preparing your luinostamp.
- Image printed layers. The artist takes into account the fact that the imposition of two distinct colors on top of one another, there is a new color.
- To print an image, use the tool - Board with corners, made of linoleum. First, the superimposed parts of the engraving of the first color is aligned, it lapped paper. Then, the sheet carefully removed, the parts placed second etching and also grind paper. The process continues until all the planned color of the stamps.