Mackintosh Charles Rennie -, Scottish architect, the founder of art Nouveau in Scotland: biography, major works

Charles Rennie Mackintosh – a man who made a huge contribution to the development of design, Creator of the unique architectural style and the most striking figure in the architecture of the 19th century.
<span>Charles Rennie Mackintosh-the man who made a great contribution to the development of design, Creator of the unique architectural style and the most striking figure in 19th century architecture.</span>

the Birth of a legend

<span>the Future founder of the art Nouveau style was born in the family of a police officer in Glasgow on 7 June 1868. Noteworthy is the fact that the future of the great architect born in the city which is the cultural heritage of Scotland and, not being the capital, has a huge financial, business and cultural role. At the time of birth, nobody could imagine that in a few decades it will be another famous person that will be proud of the city of Glasgow. The first signs of this appear in the age of 5 years when a child spends a lot of time painting, and especially painting flowers. Parents strongly supported the interest of Charles, and thanks to them, he enrolled in art school, which specializiruetsya on his passion.</span>


Style Glasgow

throughout the study period, Mac was trying to invent a new language, graphics, unique, bright and memorable. Thanks to this obsession, he is constantly sketching of natural forms, patterns and all sorts of things that catches his eye. After a while he notices that his classmates have similar habits and Hobbies, they form a group “Four”, together with which will be developed by the ‘Glasgow style”, but the creative handwriting of each group member to remain an individual.

<span>From this moment begins the development of a joint work, different furniture, posters and other artefacts. Charles Rennie Mackintosh enriches your creative world, takes on the characteristics of other group members, and in 1895 held its first performance at the exhibition art as a poster. However, it is also true to architectural creativity, unlike other members of the group who do not share his views. </span>

early successes

<span>In 1900, Charles Mackintosh married Margaret MacDonald. In this marriage it will be the end of life, for the sake of his beloved, he risks his job and his connections. The Union turned out to be rather prolific, because his wife has a specialty vitrazhista and painter, and has a wide range of interests. She became the Muse of Charles and together they create hundreds of interiors.</span>


<span>In the same year, Mackintosh Charles visits the exhibition in Turin, which creates a pavilion of Scotland. Each member of the group “Four” received an invitation to decorate a room at the exhibition in Vienna, which at that time a leading center of the avant-garde. The exhibits on display, get a huge success and quickly found their buyers. Duke of Russia Sergei Alexandrovich invites Macs in Moscow. "Glasgow" are gaining popularity. Munich, Dresden, Budapest and many other cities recognize it as a style, it is actively used in his works the great architects. Charles takes part in Moscow exhibition for architecture, which surprises the audience and makes all the glowing reviews full of emotions. The great architects of the time predict his great creative future.</span>


<span>Charles Mackintosh, whose biography is interesting contemporaries, is the only member of the group “Four”, who are seriously engaged in architecture and has orders in Glasgow. 1890 – the heyday of the city. Glasgow is becoming the commercial and business center of the country. This determines the rapid development of cultural life and providing opportunities for artists. McIntosh launches its first project – “beacon”, which is a special order of the local publishing house.</span>


School of art of Glasgow

<span>Career Mac went up after the announcement of the competition for the new building of school of art Glasgow, the winner of which became Mac Charles. This job was simple and ordinary. Lack of money played a role in construction, it was decided to split into two parts. The Northern part was opened in 1899, and the Western in 1907. It is that time becomes the most productive architect, who tries himself in the role of designer. Upon completion, it becomes obvious the difference between the two parts of the building, later turned out to be more progressive and “kitschy”. Mac gained a reputation as a talented artist. </span>

Hill House

<span>Success follows on the heels of Charles, and in 1902 he starts to design your own house House Hill ("hill house") McIntosh. Location of the house matched perfectly: orientation to the cardinal, organic placement on the landscape. Full control over the project achieved due to familiarity with the clients allowed the most daring experiments. The patronage of Catherine Cranston, the owner of the network of tea schools throughout the city, allowed not to limit yourself to Finance. Mac becomes the first to use stencils in decorating the premises. Hill House is the most creative and mathematically-conceived project architect. The style, the resultant was used before only in the house of spouses McIntosh, where he conducted experiments with placement and color scheme “male” and “female” rooms. [br]</span>
<span>On the idea of the architect, the first floor must only be used by ladies, men's rooms and other spaces for guests, are above. De Luxe rooms done in a unique style that seamlessly fit within the overall concept of home design. Spacious Windows, a frieze of colored glass applied over white walls, lead glass, used for the production of double doors with silver ornaments, purple tones of the chairs and sofas with elegant high-backed.</span>


the rationalism of the author

<span>Talent of Charles lay in his ability to consider the architectural plan and design concept together with all the small details of the operation of the facility. It strives to maximize rationality in the ideas of Mackintosh Charles was interested in modern technology and materials that are actively used in his works. Because of this, he became an innovator who was not afraid to combine concrete with cobblestones, use a mirror and steel, but his greatest achievement was to use plastic in their works. </span>
<span>Baronial style of medieval castles of Scotland, firmly stuck in the head of the Macintosh, and it is focused in the design of their work. Architecture of Italy and Greece, used in Scotland in his time, I am not fond of the author, as, in his opinion, was unsuitable for the local climate. Functionalism successfully combined with romantic images of buildings that they have become so loved by the architect.</span>


End of works of the great masters

<span>1914 was a year of depression in connection with the gap partnership with Honeyman. Starts a difficult period, giving birth to many rumors about the architect. Someone said that he drinks, someone that can't find new clients because of its nature. Charles no one spoke during this period and was thinking to move to Vienna, because of the possibility of his country was exhausted, and his authority in Austria was significantly higher than in Glasgow. Plans fall together with the beginning of World war II. Mac moved to Suffolk, where he created a series of watercolor works. Because his work is arrested on suspicion of espionage. After a while he manages to defend his innocence, and he is forced to move to London.</span>
<span>job Search was not successful due to the excessive ambitions of Charles Macintosh, who was looking for a job corresponding to the status. Architectural world of London recognizes “school of Glasgow’ legacy of style and pays attention to the classics. Charles Rennie Mackintosh designs, furniture design, performs various orders for the development of textile design. But then so could not continue, and it was clear that we need to do things that can bring more income and pleasure. Charles created a series of chairs, and develops projects for clocks, lamps, fireplaces and tables. His stuff ahead of time, they're like a line resembling the lash of a whip, geometric and functional as the most daring modern solutions. The range of its products gets the success, but the opportunities to build everything from him yet, so he has been creating series of paintings.</span>

designer furniture Charles Mackintosh

<span>the Model, known to this day, excites the consciousness of many people who purchased the chair of the Mac. Very high back, straight legs and seat in the form of a trapezoid give the impression of something ancient and extremely stylish. Despite this, the chair is extremely simple: woodworking product with a rectilinear design. Refinement and elaboration of the smallest details are the key to refinement of the final product. Play with color, material, and natural qualities of the wood have left an indelible mark in history. To this day, these pieces of furniture are popular.</span>


the Last years of the life of Charles Rennie Mackintosh

<span>Disappointment of the architect are becoming more 20th year brings the development of the architecture of Germany, while the style of the Mac becoming obsolete, the most important of the wizard is no longer interested in the audience. Charles moved to the South of France, that is where he will spend the last years of his life, before died in London in 1928. </span>
<span>Disappointment architect Charles Mackintosh were great, and during his life he received such a great response, which he deserved. Many of his works are still relevant today, some are used, others are cultural heritages of the country. The furniture made by its projects, has a high rate of sales, and its design techniques are widely used in the modern world. As often happens, the fame and recognition found its owner only after his death. Today is one of the most striking personalities in the history of architecture.</span>