Soviet architecture: description, history and interesting facts
construction of a new society could not fail to affect the culture of the country in General and in architecture in particular. Soviet architecture has gone through several stages of development, it had its UPS and downs, but in any case it was a specific event in world architecture. In the USSR there were several architects of the highest level and today, the vast the post-Soviet space
you can see some of the masterpieces of world scale. Will talk about how evolved styles of Soviet architecture, and how it evolved.
features and problems of Soviet architecture
After the October revolution of 1917, the new government had actively set about changing all spheres of life. For some time all was not to architecture, but it soon became clear that it needs to fulfil an ideological function, as the rest of the art. In the 20 years before architects were not directly the task of building a new space, but the creators themselves felt that the time had come for new forms and began to search for the expression of ideas change. But later Soviet architecture was designed to service the ideas of socialism. All art in the Soviet Union was to prove the only correct path of development-a socialist. This led to the main features of Soviet architecture, which should always be first and foremost ideological, and in the latter – beautiful. If at first the creators even managed to combine the benefit of, the idea and the beauty, aesthetics gradually gave place to utility, and this has led to the decline in the potential of great architecture.
the development of the Soviet architecture has passed several stages. The origin of this phenomenon associated with the period of 20-beginning of 30-ies, when there are active searches of new forms, reinterpreted the classic techniques of architecture. At this time formed two main avant-garde Soviet architecture: constructivism and rationalism. In the late 30-ies becomes clear that the avant-garde is not on the way to the Soviet ideological culture. Begins to form a new architecture, which aims to celebrate the greatness and achievements of the socialist idea. The implementation of the ideas of this period prevented the Second world war, after which begins a new period in architecture. It involves not only reconstruction of destroyed cities, but also creating a new space that would support the in man a sense of pride in their country. It was on this ideological basis Stalin Empire style
with its thrust to scale. Beginning of 60-x years exacerbated the problem of residential architecture. The people lived in inhuman conditions, and this cannot be blamed on post-war reconstruction. Need to solve the problem of construction of mass housing. This problem was solved by maximizing the reduction in price of projects. It turned into a tragedy for Soviet architecture. who chose not the best path of development and followed by the French in their functional model construction.
All the creative attempts of students admitted excess and harmful. That forced the creators to engage in “paper architecture”, i.e. to create projects with no hope of realization. In the 80-ies of the Soviet architects are acutely aware of the looming crisis. In this dominant model, the faceless project. Architecture becomes art in the simple drawing skills. This crisis she very slowly began to emerge only towards the end of the 90-ies, but this is the post-Soviet period.
At the end of the Civil war the question arose about the reconstruction of Moscow. By this time in the country's architecture has developed two new trends: constructivism and rationalism. They were created by outstanding architects, which was formed in the framework of the Russian and European traditions, but saw the need to create a new architecture that would meet the new realities. At that time, artists were fascinated by the idea of creating a new society and a new, harmonious.
Constructivists, led by brothers Vesniny, Konstantin Melnikov, Moses Ginzburg believed that the composition of the building must meet function. They abandoned the historical continuity, the main role was given to the simple designs with a minimum of decoration. Thanks to them, the Soviet avant-garde architecture was enriched by such buildings as round house
Konstantin Melnikov in Moscow, the building of the newspaper «news" of the Palace of culture ZIL, and many others. The direction was very favorably received by the architects and its branches appeared in Leningrad, Kharkov, Gorky, Sverdlovsk. In many cities of the former USSR and today we can admire the constructivist structures.
Second avant-garde direction, rationalism, headed by N. Ladovsky and Vladimir Krinsky, less a realization than constructivism. They key to his work was seen based on the psychology of perception of building a human. In the early 30-ies of the avant-garde was declared ideologically alien to Soviet art and quickly ceased to exist. Later rationalism was "rehabilitated" and his ideas were widely used in architecture in the 60-ies.
Architecture of 30-40 years
In the mid 30-ies of the Soviet architecture is entering a new period. The new government Matures, the need for massive reconstruction of residential and public buildings
build construction of a new type, for example, grounds for agricultural exhibitions. At the forefront of traditional techniques and methods. At the head of the traditionalists gets a great architect of the old school, neoclassicist I. Zholtovsky. Retrospectivist for his views, he returns in domestic practice the love of columns, pilastres, Arcam, etc. In this period still strongly influenced by constructivism, but the bias to the classics become more distinct. Before the Second world war in the country, especially in Moscow there is a construction boom. Appear, VDNKH, State library. Lenin, built several stations of the Moscow metro. In Kharkiv built the ensemble of Dzerzhinsky square. In Yerevan appears the government House. The map of the USSR, new city, plans which embody the ideas of the new architecture. These are the Komsomolsk-on-Amur, Magnitogorsk, Khabarovsk. Before the war the country was built around 170 million square meters of housing. Gradually a new, Imperial style of the Soviet Union.
Stalin Empire style
After the Second world war the history of Soviet architecture is entering a new phase. It took a lot of resources to rebuild the destroyed settlement. In the mid 40-ies in the USSR, formed the second after constructivism “great” in architecture – Stalin's Empire. It combines several areas: classical, Baroque, art Deco, Empire. He was typical of the panache, pomp, sublimity. Buildings in this style were designed to demonstrate the victory and the magnitude of the Soviet achievement. The symbol of this style became famous Moscow “skyscraper”: Moscow state University, hotel «Ukraine», the foreign Ministry and others. Stalin's Empire style became the dominant style for 150 years, he changed the face of the country. Stalinist architecture appeared almost in all cities of the country.
Mass residential architecture
In the postwar period, there was a problem of housing. But in 50 years to solve the user could not, as it was necessary to restore production infrastructure. But in the 60-ies to postpone the solution of this problem was impossible. Just at this time came the end of the Stalin era. Khrushchev urged as cheaper housing construction. He also initiated the fight against “art-nonsense”, a sample was recommended to take the quarters of the French functionalism. So appeared the famous beacon hill, as a sample of the new living environment. The quarter was supposed to be all objects of social infrastructure, and buildings must provide a minimum area per resident.
Architecture 60-80 years
Since the late 60-ies begins mass construction of model housing. In all the cities and towns of the Soviet Union appear to house large concrete parts. The construction goes fast, people get apartments. But use the word “architecture” to the difficult construction, as the building was completely featureless and uniform. So the architecture of the Soviet area on a standard project in any city was like two drops of water similar to other localities. Over it and laughed the Director E. Ryazanov in tape “Ironic”. Mass construction and the struggle against architectural excesses led to the fact that the 80-th years, the phenomenon of the Soviet architecture turned into nothing. Of course, there were individual creators and buildings worthy of attention, but the overall architecture was in deep crisis. It is interesting that the living and architectural creativity at that time is moved from the capitals to the provinces and the Federal Republic.
In the 80-ies, when the official architecture of the Soviet period into crisis, comes this unusual phenomenon. Young architects at that time were not able to rely not only on their ideas, but even their recognition. So they created the projects in the paper, often sent them to various foreign competitions and won prizes. In this region is a whole generation of good architects. The founders of the movement are A. Brodsky and I. Utkin, Mikhail Belov, Yury Avvakumov, M. Kharitonov.
the Architects have developed their own style of presenting ideas. As they were sure that the projects are not implemented, they concentrated on the visual presentation of the concept. Basically, these architects were inspired by the ideas of antiquity, though often created futuristic designs.
Best Soviet architects
Soviet architecture in the first half of its history has evolved thanks to the creativity of architects, who studied and formed in Imperial times. After this generation is gone, there comes a little period of calm. But it soon grows a new generation of architects who bring new ideas and new challenges. Among the best architects of Soviet Union experts consider Melnikov, V. Tatlin, A. Shchusev. These constructivists are the real pride of our country in the global architecture. Also among the best in domestic architecture are N. Proceedings, I. Rerberg, vesnins brothers, A. Krasovsky. A great contribution to the formation of the image of many Soviet cities were made by I. V. Zholtovsky, V. N. Semenov, N. Dokuchaev, B. Iofan, V. Krinsky. In Soviet times formed the architects who happened to transform the post-Soviet space after perestroika. Among them it is worth mentioning I. Utkin, A. Brodsky, Y. Grigoryan.
the Architecture of Soviet era
full of interesting objects and facts. So, round the Melnikov house is one of the best monuments of constructivism. An outstanding world architect Le Corbusier's three arrived to Moscow to be inspired by new ideas. In the 30-ies was created the most ambitious project of the Soviet architecture-the Palace of Soviets, which was supposed to be about 400 meters, 100 floors. To implement it was blown up the Cathedral of Christ the Savior, but realized the idea was not.