Pointillism in painting: history, method. The most famous representatives of pointillism
19th and 20th century were rich in new directions in art. The artists experimented a lot, looking for new expressive forms. And as a result of these searches turned up pointillism in painting. Will talk about what constitutes its specificity, who invented it and who particularly distinguished themselves in this style.
meaning of the term
the name of the style called "pointillism" comes from the French word “point”. This same word is, for example, the name ballet shoes-Pointe shoes. The name is associated with features of fine equipment. Pointillism in painting, therefore, can be described as “point” style.
History of pointillism
In the late 19th century French artists
were active in research in number theory, physics and psychology of color. They wanted to find tools that can maximally would allow the author to convey their intent and emotional message to the viewer. Chemical color theory by Eugene Sevres on the mutual influence of different colors on top of each other and the physical theory of Ogden Ore about mixing colors gave rise to new experiences and looking. Also at this time there are large debates about the psychology of color, its symbolism and influence on psychoemotional state of a person. All these scientific investigations have led to the fact that artists are beginning to take a new approach to painting techniques. At this time, the Impressionists were active in the research of colors, to convey light and air and water space. They sought to convey the immediate, live sense of movement of natural elements. Classical technique did not give them this opportunity. Research and experiments in 1885 appears pointillism in painting. What is the feature of this style?
Method and the technique of pointillism in painting
the very name of the style speaks about the peculiarities of manner. The artist paints small, square strokes. The movement of his brush resembles a slight flutter butterfly, which only momentarily touches the canvas and once again breaks away from him. But the method is not only a special overlay of paint layer on surface of the canvas. Search special acting opportunities at the viewer gave rise to pointillism in painting. How to draw to convey the beauty of the moment of nature and feeling of the moment that has seen the artist? The question is, who asked themselves the painters in the late 19th and early 20th century. French artists influenced by scientific discoveries in color theory and light, and due to the opening photos, which recorded the time being, began to experiment with putting paint on the canvas. And the pointillism was one of the variants of the new technology. The colors in this style are not mixed on the palette, as was customary in classical painting, and was applied in its original form in small strokes. And there is always side by side contrast according to the colour circle, colours. Superimposed red next to green, yellow-blue, etc. It was an opportunity for the eye to perceive a vivid sense of air and light. The perception of pictures the human eye itself produces mixing of colors, and made of multicolor work. The technique of pointillism is very complicated and laborious. It is similar in its decoration and the complexity of the mosaic. But artists are not frightened with such a workload, as it allowed you to solve an artistic problem.
In 1885, a new style of painting-pointillism, his birth is associated, primarily, with the name of the French artist Georges Seurat. He was disappointed in the classical manner of painting and sought to find his own style. To this end, he actively studied the scientific writings on color theory. He was very influenced by the already mentioned work in physics and chemistry, as well as research by Charles Blanc on coloristics. Sulfur resolutely refused impressionistic approach to painting based on momentary feeling. He believed that the artist must proceed from scientific discoveries. The Creator, in his opinion, should not rely on inspiration or a momentary feeling, and needs every step carefully calculated, on the basis of physiological and physical knowledge. His discoveries in the field of color, the artist first articulated in the theory of chromoluminarism, and later substantiated a new approach – the divisionism or pointillism. In 1884-86, he wrote a huge canvas, which subsequently became very famous – “Sunday afternoon on the island of Grand Zhat”. Its size – two to three meters, was designed to be perceived at a distance. Work has become a classic of pointillism. Unfortunately, the Sulfur did not fully develop his theory and put it into the works, he died at a young age, and later associated with the name of his pupil, ex-impressionist Paul Signac.
It Signac brought the theory to the absolute and to tell the world about what is pointillism in painting. Pictures-reproductions of his works appeared in magazines and on postcards, as was very decorative and unusual. Signac not only wrote and in his paintings brought pointillism to perfection, but has also created serious theoretical work "From Delacroix to neo-impressionism” which became a kind of textbook for the artists. The artist is mainly engaged in the writing of scenery, and point technique allows him to reach incredible air and lightness. Also Signac experimented in graphics and in black-and-white painting. The success and the unusual effect works in the style of pointillism attracted the attention of other prominent artists. In dot technique worked in the end, Camille Pissarro, tried their hand at this technique of V. van Gogh. Known pointilliste steel sh Angran, M. Luce, T. van Rysselberge, A. Lodge, A. E. Cross. This style has not lost its relevance today. But such a mass of pointillism, as at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries was gone. The most famous modern pointilliste considered Benjamin Laading and Miguel endara.
in the style of pointillism
the Classic pointillism in painting represented by the works of Georges Seurat: “Circus”, “the Ships at sea”, “Bathers at Asnières,” Paul Signac: “the Harbor in Marseille”, “Breakfast”, “Venice, the pink cloud”. As well as the experimental works of van Gogh "the Sower and the sunset”, A. Matisse “Parrot tulips" of the paintings of K. Pissarro “the Hamptons”, “Haymaking in Eragny”, “Children on the yard”. Today in this technology – masterpieces, hunted by museums and collectors. After all, these paintings, and they are the real rarities.