Guohua - Chinese painting water colours and ink. The Chinese artists. Painting training
Aesthetic canons living heritage spanning millennia, has been shaped by the philosophical traditions of Taoism, Buddhism and Confucianism. It is believed that nature teaches people to see the beauty, and this truth is the main theme of traditional painting of China. The unique masterpieces created by the masters at different times, – this is an important contribution to world art.
a Traditional painting of ChinaGuohua-Chinese painting which is different from the West the technique of execution drawing on silk or special thin paper with a brush applied to the image. Artists use mineral and vegetable water colors, black ink, and their works often take the form of horizontal or vertical scrolls.
Occupies a Central place among the different forms of art in China Guohua (Chinese painting) originated in the VII-VIII centuries BC, and from the end of XIX century style gets its second wind.
“Four treasures”For writing traditional paintings, the authors use a limited set of tools: black ink (or watercolor), Chinese brush made of natural wool, paper and a fixture for grinding paint. Many artists still prefer the monochrome painting, believing it "will reveal the essence of nature”.
Great attention is devoted to quality of ink, use tiles with a black lacquer Shine. Master rubbed them with water, getting the required consistency and creating a variety of shades. As recognized by Chinese artists, due to the low quality of the European carcass to achieve the desired effects cannot be.
For painting uses a special Xuan paper (rice) with a specific texture. Sometimes the drawings are executed on silk or cotton.
an ink pot are highly valued, and many are passed down from generation to generation. These devices, sometimes ornate, made of jade or baked clay.
line chartIf we look at the European paintings in watercolor, then they can not see the line itself. In Chinese painting, all images are created with a linear pattern. This is different from the traditional style of ink wash painting, is strongly reminiscent of the successfully developing in the country of calligraphy, elements of which the artists definitely contribute to their work.
not to mention the excellent technique of possession of a brush, which is perfected over several centuries. Using a thin or thick line artists using the same tools that calligraphers, transfer space, volume, movement, without using the usual techniques of light and shade. The beauty of Chinese painting lies in the complete mastery of a special technique: bi-mo, whose name translates as “brush-mascara”. Black ink printed on rice paper, instantly absorbed, and one awkward movement, incorrect line can change the overall mood of the painting, distorting the facts of life. Every stroke must be accurate and clear, because neither erase nor correct drawing of the author.
the Technique of applying images fingersit is interesting that Chinese paintings in the technique of ink wash painting is not always written with a brush. Masters often use hands, bringing them lines and shading paint. The painters applied the contour lines of the nail, and carry out broad strokes the pad of the thumb.
the Poetic inscriptionTraditional Chinese painting differs from the European one by the fact that the illustration a poetic inscription, executed in a calligraphic style. So masters have expressed their attitude to the artwork, and the characters complement its figurative content. The famous calligrapher, writer and artist su Shi, who lived in the eleventh century, fought for that in painting are always present poetry. These labels reflect the opinion of the author and become his handwriting.
ScrollsGuohua-Chinese painting, in which there is a unusual form of paintings. They rolled up on a stick in a roll and stored in oblong cases. Works written on special paper, not only ink, but also paints from mineral and vegetable raw materials. Painting in coils, not intended for a mass audience, are stored for more than a thousand years, without losing the brightness and saturation of colors. In our days you can admire the masterpieces written several centuries ago well-known artists.
AllegoricallyPainting with water colors and ink laconic, and this language of symbols understood this connoisseur of Chinese art. For example, plants and poetic lines depict the seasons and the moon, or a burning candle indicate the night.
Blank emptiness in the paintingsAnother feature that distinguishes Chinese painting from the West, is that the author leave blank areas that can masquerade as the image of a bright cloud or white fog. Sometimes an empty place is left to the viewer remained freedom for your imagination, because Chinese paintings – an amazing form of art, which is impossible without the unity of author and audience.
Mandatory printtraditionally, artists are sure to put on works print red, thus proving his identity.
having Considered the characteristics of traditional art, we can say that Guohua-Chinese painting, which harmoniously combines poetry, calligraphy and manifested in the seal engraving skills.
genre paintingIn traditional Chinese painting there are several genres. First – Shanshui (landscape). The country has widespread philosophical concept, according to which people and nature are one, and between them there are no barriers. Landscape work evokes the mood of the viewer.
Second genre – chuanyao (picture of flora and fauna). Chinese masters peering into the perfect shape of animals, rocks, plants and transmit them to the true essence which cannot be expressed in words.
Third genre – ganyu (portrait). In ancient times the artists who worked with people who knew one immutable rule: with the same similarity the Creator has to convey the mental state and the nature of man, highlighting the beauty of his inner world. All the artists clearly followed this principle, and even in the early stages of development of Chinese art, the skill of the portrait genre has reached unprecedented levels.
Styles Guohuathere are two traditional style: gunby, predominant in the early stages, and CE and became widespread in the late nineteenth century. Let's examine the features of these areas.
Chinese style, gunby – it is a certain style of writing, in which carefully applied paint (including color) and paint the smallest details. The main goal of the artist – just to depict reality, the idea of naturalism is closely connected with the influence of Taoism. Gunby, is the official academic painting. In the style of clear lines of masters, who designed the interiors of the Imperial Palace.
However, after the spread of Buddhism in the country, the artists rethought the idea, and there's a new Chinese style CE and characterized by a free style of writing. The creators do not depict the resemblance of the subject or object, and take care of conveying the mood. They seek to show sincere emotions in terms of images. It is believed that se-and – painting of philosophers and poets, and in this style of working creators under the influence of momentary mood.
a Variation of the CE and is shuimo (for writing patterns is used only black ink).
Many Chinese artists successfully combine in their writings the techniques of one and another style using mixed-media techniques. If Kajang, Qi Baishi, Fu Baoshi, Yang Yifeng, Huang Bingjun, pan, Tianshou and other masters were able to achieve in his work expressive effects, conveying images of nature and fixing even the most minor details.
“Reading” paintingsthe national painting water paints and is characterized by graceful figurative language, and artists put in their works a subtext. If the Europeans are considering cloth, the Chinese read them. The paintings are filled with positive attitude and give its owner a good mood.
Chinese works are full of symbolism and allegories. For example, mountain men represent a bright start, and the water – the dark feminine. The painter conveys the lyrical sentiments, experiences, that occur after contact with nature, and not committed to naturalism and visual similarity.
backdrop of the majestic landscapes of miniature human figures symbolize that the person – this is a minor link of the Universe, which is completely subject to its power. But in European art of the people was always depicted as a mighty force that can control the elements, and such ideas of man radically different from the Western Chinese painting.
Flowers – this is a separate topic of conversation. There is a painting, which is called “the four noble”
- Orchid, symbolizing purity;
- chrysanthemum, embodies modesty and chastity;
- wild plum Mayfair – resistance and resilience;
- bamboo – is a symbol of human character.
Most artists paint willow that embodies the beauty and exquisite refinement. She represents spring and feminine elegance. But pine – the idea of eternal youth and Confucian restraint.
This language of symbols is very clear to the Chinese, and those who will not be able to unravel the allegory, to understand the national painting is incredibly difficult.
Master Guo HuaXu bei-Hong, were well versed in the basic skills of European art and in his work he combined them with Chinese traditions. His magnificent portraits in which the painter skilfully reveal the psychological traits of people, are considered masterpieces of Chinese art.
Yang Yifeng, is the winner of many national awards, continues with dignity developed by centuries of tradition.
GU Yinji, received the title "Queen of cats" works in the style of CE I. She masterfully portrays Pets, and her paintings give the Chinese ambassadors to foreign visitors.
Qi Bai Shi – one of the brightest representatives of the style. The observation Creator is able to capture the main features, writes original paintings, combining high craftsmanship with the art of calligraphy and expressive lines.
painting TrainingMany people want to learn the secrets of Guo Hua, but to learn to do this technique is not so simple. Artists a lot of time practicing before you begin the work being done in one breath, to avoid errors.
Chinese not only appreciate the external beauty of the paintings, but also the internal, strength and energy. In many country shops sell special albums for coloring, which shows the sequence of the drawing. The training of painting gives off, and almost anyone can paint pictures in the traditional style. So instilled a good taste and brought a love of art.