Michelangelo: art and biography

Michelangelo Buonarroti many consider the most famous artist Italian Renaissance. Among his most famous works-statue of ‘David’ and ‘Pieta" of the frescoes of the Sistine chapel.

past master

the Work of Michelangelo Buonarroti can be summarized as the greatest phenomenon in the art of all time – he was appreciated during his lifetime, continue to believe to this day. Several of his works in painting, sculpture and architecture are among the most famous in the world. Although the frescoes on the ceiling of the Sistine chapel in the Vatican, probably-the most famous works of the artist, first and foremost, he considered himself a sculptor. Activity in several types of art in his time was not unusual. All of them based on the picture. Michelangelo all his life was engaged in the marble sculpture and the other arts only in certain periods. High score of the Sistine chapel is partly a reflection of the greater attention which was paid to painting in the twentieth century, and partly because many of the wizard was left unfinished.

a Side effect of a lifetime of fame he made a more detailed description of his journey than any other artist of the time. He became the first artist whose biography was published before his death, they even had two. The first was a final Chapter in the book about the lives of artists (1550) of the painter and architect Giorgio Vasari. It was dedicated to Michelangelo, whose art was presented as the culmination of the perfection of art. Despite this praise, he was not quite satisfied and instructed his assistant Ascanio Condivi to write a brief separate book (1553), probably based on a review of the artist. In it Michelangelo, the work of the master depicted the way he wanted them to be seen by others. After the death of Buonarroti Vasari in the second edition (1568) published a refutation. Although scientists prefer the book Condivi in vivo the description of the Vasari, their importance in General and its frequent reprinting in many languages have made the product the main source of information on Michelangelo and other Renaissance artists. Thank Buonarroti also had the consequence of preserving countless documents, including hundreds of letters, essays and poems. However, despite the huge amount of accumulated material, in controversial matters often only known view of Florence.

brief biography and works

Painter, sculptor, architect and poet, one of the most famous artists of the Italian Renaissance was born under the name of Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni March 6, 1475 in Caprese, Italy. His father, Leonardo di Buonarotto Simoni, briefly served as a magistrate in a small village, when he and his wife Francesca Neri was born the second of five sons, but they returned to Florence when Michelangelo was still an infant. Due to illness of the mother the boy was sent to a foster family of a stonemason, about the great sculptor later joked that the milk of a nurse, he absorbed the hammer and chisel.
Really, training is the least interested in Michelangelo. The work of painters in the neighbouring temples and repeating what he saw there, according to his early biographers, attracted him much more. School friend Michelangelo and Francesco Granacci, who was six years older than him, introduced his friend with the painter Domenico Ghirlandaio. The father realized that the son is not interested in the family financial business and agreed to give him at the age of 13 apprentices to the fashionable Florentine painter. There he became acquainted with the technique of fresco.

Medici Gardens

Michelangelo spent a year in the Studio, when he had a unique opportunity. On the recommendation of Ghirlandaio, he moved into the Palace of Florentine ruler Lorenzo the Magnificent, a powerful member of the Medici family to study classical sculpture in its gardens. It was a fertile time for Michelangelo Buonarroti. Biography and works of the young artist was marked by the acquaintance with the elite of Florence, a talented sculptor Bertoldo di Giovanni, a prominent poets, scholars and humanists of the time. Buonarroti also received a special permission from the Church to investigate the corpses to learn anatomy, although it has adversely affected his health.
Combination of these effects formed the basis of a recognizable style of Michelangelo: a muscular precision and realism combined with an almost lyrical beauty. Two preserved bas-relief, “Battle of centaurs” and “Madonna of the stairs", attest to his unique talent at the age of 16.

Early success and influence

the Political struggle after the death of Lorenzo the Magnificent was forced Michelangelo to flee to Bologna, where he continued his studies. He returned to Florence in 1495 to begin work as a sculptor, borrowing the style of the masterpieces of classical antiquity.
There are several versions of an intriguing story about Michelangelo “Cupid”, which is artificially aged so she looked like a rare antique. One version claims that the author wanted to achieve a patina effect, and according to another, his art dealer buried the piece to pass off as Antiques.
Cardinal Riario of San Giorgio bought “Cupid”, considering sculpture itself, and demanded his money back when he discovered that he was deceived. In the end, the cheated buyer is so impressed with Michelangelo's work that he allowed the artist to keep the money. The cardinal even invited him to Rome, where Buonarroti lived and worked until the end of his days.


the‘Pieta’ and “David”

Shortly after moving to Rome in 1498 his career was facilitated by another cardinal, Jean de Biler Lagraa, the papal envoy to the French king Charles VIII. The sculpture of the ‘Pieta’, which depicts Mary holding the dead Jesus on her lap, was finished in less than a year and was placed in the temple with the tomb of the cardinal. Width 1.8 m and almost the same height, the statue was moved five times until it acquired its present location in St. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican.
Carved from a single piece of Carrara marble sculpture fluidity of the fabric, status of the subjects and a “movement” skin and Pieta (which means “a pity” or “compassion”) has been cast in the fear of your first viewers. Today is an incredibly revered work. Michelangelo made it when he was only 25 years old.

Legend has it that the author overheard a conversation about the intention to attribute the work to another sculptor, boldly carved his signature on the ribbon, on the breast of Mary. This is the only work printed on it with his name.
By the time when Michelangelo returned to Florence, he became a celebrity. The sculptor commissioned for the statue of David, which two previous sculptor had unsuccessfully tried to do, and turned a five-meter block of marble into a dominating figure. The strength of the tendons, vulnerable nakedness, the humanity of the expressions and General courage made “David” the symbol of Florence.

Art and architecture

Followed by other orders, including an ambitious project for the tomb of Pope Julius II, but the work was interrupted, when he was asked to move from sculpture to painting to decorate the ceiling of the Sistine chapel.
Project has ignited the imagination of the artist, and the original plan of writing the 12 apostles turned into over 300 pieces. Later, this work was completely removed because of the fungus in the plaster, and then restored. Buonarroti fired all the assistants who were considered inept, and finished painting a 65-metre ceiling himself, spending endless hours lying on my back and jealously guarding their work until its completion on 31 October 1512
Art work of Michelangelo can be summarized as follows. It's a transcendent example of high Renaissance art, which contains Christian symbols, prophecy and humanist principles, captured by the master during his youth. Vivid vignettes on the ceiling of the Sistine chapel effect of a kaleidoscope. The most iconic image is the composition “the Creation of Adam", depicting God touching the finger to the man. Roman painter Raphael, apparently, changed his style after I saw this work.

Michelangelo, biography and creativity which always remained associated with sculpture and drawing, because of the physical loads during the painting of the chapel was forced to turn its attention to the architecture.
Master continued to work on the tomb of Julius II in the next few decades. He also designed the Medici chapels and library Laurentina, located opposite the Basilica San Lorenzo in Florence, which was to accommodate the library of the house of Medici. These buildings are considered a turning point in the history of architecture. But the crowning glory of Michelangelo in this area was the main architect of the Cathedral of St. Peter in 1546.

controversial

Michelangelo presented the soaring “judgment” on the far wall of the Sistine chapel in 1541, Immediately rang out the voice of protest-Nude figures were inappropriate for so Holy place, there were calls to destroy the largest fresco of the Italian Renaissance. The artist replied, entering into the composition of the new images: his chief critic as a devil and himself as the flayed St. Bartholomew.
Despite the respect and patronage of rich and powerful men of Italy, who provided a brilliant mind and all-round talent of Michelangelo, the life and work of the master was full of enemies. He was cocky and had a temper that often led to quarrels, including those with its customers. This not only brought him trouble, but also created a sense of frustration – the artist constantly strove for perfection and could not compromise.
Sometimes he had fits of melancholy, left his mark in many of his literary works. Michelangelo wrote that he was in the tribulation and writings that he has no friends, and they are not necessary, and that he didn't have time enough to eat, but these inconveniences bring him joy.

In his youth, Michelangelo was teased by fellow students and received on the nose that disfigured him for life. For many years he felt a growing fatigue with their work, in one of his poems he described the tremendous physical effort he had to make to paint the ceiling of the Sistine chapel. Political strife in his beloved Florence also tormented him, but his most notable foe was a Florentine artist Leonardo da Vinci, who was 20 years his senior.

Literary works and personal life

Michelangelo, whose art is expressed in his sculpture, painting and architecture, in Mature years engaged in poetry.

never married, Buonarroti was devoted to a pious and noble widow named Vittoria Colonna – the addressee is more than 300 poems and sonnets. Their friendship has provided great support to the Michelangelo to death Columns in 1547, In 1532, the master approached the young nobleman Tommaso de Cavalieri. Historians are still arguing about wore whether their relationship is homosexual in nature or he had paternal feelings.

Death and legacy

After a short illness, February 18, 1564-just weeks before his 89th birthday — Michelangelo died at his home in Rome. The nephew moved the body to Florence, where he was venerated as “the father and the master of all the arts” and was buried in the Basilica di Santa Croce — where bequeathed by the sculptor himself.
unlike many artists, Michelangelo's work brought him fame and fortune during his lifetime. He was also lucky enough to see the publication of two biographies of the authorship of Giorgio Vasari and Ascanio Condivi. High assessment of the skills Buonarroti has a long history, and his name became synonymous with the Italian Renaissance.

Michelangelo: the characteristics of creativity

In contrast to the great fame of his works, their visual influence on later art is relatively limited. This cannot be explained by the reluctance to copy the works of Michelangelo simply because of his fame, as is his talent Raphael imitated more often. It is possible that a certain, almost cosmic type of the expression Buonarroti, limits. Examples of almost complete copy just a few. The most talented was the artist Daniele da Volterra. But in certain aspects of creativity in the art of Michelangelo continued. In the XVII century it was considered the best in anatomical drawing, but it is less praised for the broader elements of his work. Mannerists used it spatial compression and the serpentine poses of his sculpture ‘Victory». Master of the XIX century Auguste Rodin used the effect of unfinished marble blocks. Some masters of the XVII century Baroque style copied him, but so as to exclude a literal similarity. In addition, the Gian Lorenzo Bernini and Peter Paul Rubens is best demonstrated how to use the work of Michelangelo Buonarroti future generations of sculptors and artists.