What is smal is the types, properties and applications. Mosaic smal

What is cobalt glass? Simply put, pieces, cubes or plates of colored glass. But if seriously, then this is for you. What is smal, will be discussed below.

Types of stained glass

  • Transparent has a strong lustre, clean deep color, plays and shimmers.
  • Opal has a bright color, has a distinctive luster and richness of colors.
  • get Spotted by melting of glass of various colors.
  • gold and silver. Between two layers of glass put the required record.
Kolor contemporary artist can choose from a huge number of shades that give the glass the salts and oxides of various metals. And all of this – smalt glass.

Quality glazes

1. She glows from the inside of the material.
2. Very durable (Roman mosaics of the glazes have not lost over the millennia of its appeal). She is not afraid of moisture and frost, which allows its use as a universal internal and external finishing material.
3. The traditional size of the elements - 5 x 5 x 5 mm. But it can be any geometric shapes-ovals and different polyhedra. To get these shapes, glass chips heated up and molded. Now it becomes clearer that this smal.
Glass itself is quite expensive, and manual labor, which is used in the manufacture of the product, increases the price.

the Manufacture of smalt

the Finished glass is then ground into a powder. It can be as a colour, even bottled, and colorless. Added in different percentages borax, nitrate, cobalt, cryolite and sending it into the furnace for melting. Then hot liquid mass without inclusions of air bubbles poured into molds. Then produce annealing and grinding. This is what smal.

History glazes

Its history dates back to the beginning of our era, to ancient Rome. In him she came from Greece and is widely spread. The Romans fell in love with the spectacular new material. Although, when made of glass stones, it does not always represent what color they will turn out.

Technology has not been tested. They loved to put colorful stones on the floors, the walls of their villas, palaces and the baths, a path in the gardens. But in addition to glazes, often used in the mosaic of small stones and pebbles. This technique can be applied as long-lasting and very impressive in our time. Wall, ceiling or floor of the glazes will transform your apartment. And if it is used in home gym, the floor will not wear.
Another thing - Byzantium. In the Eastern Roman Empire masters have reached a milestone. Their work in comparison with ancient more delicate. Christian temples were richly ornamented.

On the walls were created complex compositions on themes drawn from the Bible. Window and door openings were also jeweled. Placement of the stones became more refined, the stones used are small. Widely used gold smalt to the background. Colored enamels became a primary reception decorations. It was created by panels of the mosaic. In numerous workshops we used to make smalt. The masters had their secrets, and the number of shades that they could obtain, was more than a hundred. The Byzantine Empire even adopted a law, according to which the removal of smalt was controlled by the government. By the mid-fifteenth century the Byzantine Empire did not, and the production of glazes continued in Italy. It was an expensive production, and it has not received wide distribution.

In Russia and in Russia

Together with the Baptism of the princes of Kievan Rus drew attention to the decoration of their churches. Archaeologists have found at least one workshop for the manufacture of smalts for making icons.
In later times the manufacture of smalts was engaged by M. V. Lomonosov. His work is not found at the time of application, although it is fully developed melting glass and the laying of the mosaic. Much later, when Auguste Monferrand built St. Isaac's Cathedral, the mosaic of smalt was used in the manufacture of icons and other elements of the Cathedral, occupying about six square meters.

Another example of the use of smalt is associated with severe date & ndash; the untimely death of the Emperor Alexander III. Then was built the Church of the Savior on spilled Blood. The interior was filled with mosaics of glazes.

What else do smalti

First of all, the monumental mural. They can be located on the wall or ceiling. The wall is decorated with the street, the facade, as a rule, or the interior. If panels of the mosaic, it is very often spread of the glazes.

On the wall or ceiling of a public building, it really looks very Regal, especially if the artist has laid in him a deep content, broad and deep.

Soviet times

Bright examples of the application of panels of the mosaic, collected from the glazes are stations of the Moscow metro. For example, take two: "Chekhov" (1987) and «Kyiv» (1954). The piers that support arches on "Chekhov" of the invisible. Veneer is made of white marble. But the track walls-a work of art. They are made in the style of Florentine mosaic and present us with scenes from Chekhov's works (see above). Looks completely different station «Kyiv».

it has a pompous eighteen pylons, which is glorified by the Ukrainian people. As well as working peasants and ordinary people who meet May 1 and Victory Day. Not to mention panels of the mosaic works of Pavel Korin at the station «Moscow». It is called “peace in the world”.

a Magnificent woman (assuming the model was the wife of the architect of this station), which goes towards people holding a child against the background of a five-pointed star, hammer and sickle, the Golden sheaves of ears. Head over to the hovering pigeons. And there were a portrait of Stalin, which was removed after the XX Congress. The world is thus expressed in a large generalized forms. The builders tell the legend that the architect and the artist, following the tradition, first laid under the glass coin. Group Corina has also worked at the station «Komsomolskaya-Ring”, performing 8 mosaic panels. It was in 1951, so their common theme-the victory of Russian people in different wars. Examples in metro you can bring a lot, because many of them look like Palace halls.

Paintings from glazes

They can be safely placed in the bathrooms, kitchen and, of course, to hang in rooms, lobbies, hallways. It can be as original, or a copy of paintings by famous Russian and foreign artists.

In any room of the picture of the glazes look organic, is extremely unusual and spectacular. The disadvantages can be attributed only to their high price. But she justified the cost of the material and the delicate, painstaking manual work.
This ancient technique is now getting a new revival. Updating the design space, it is good to remember about it and reap its indisputable advantages.