Dada - what is it? Representatives of Dadaism in painting
to keep up with life and not to strike in a dirt the person at the crucial moment, we must constantly evolve and learn something new.
anyone who considers himself an educated man with broad Outlook, needs to understand minimum the basics of art and painting because this is one of the most common topics when talking to unfamiliar people in an intelligent society.
There are many styles, at different times invented by artists and writers, from Prim classicism to frivolous and anarchistic underground.
Today we talk about one of the most talked about styles of the twentieth century – on Dadaism.
Dada: a definitionAs you know, the beginning of the twentieth century has impressed people with his cruelty and inhumanity. The whole world has become a victim of hostilities, waged over self-serving, illogical and even manic actions of some politicians. The discontent of the masses grew. All this accumulated tension and the lack of understanding spilled through the direction of art at the time.
by Itself, the Dada – it's avant-garde art direction, denying all laws of combinations and eliminating sharp lines and geometric shapes. In 1916, artists, overwhelmed by the horrors of war, opened to the people of this direction in literature, music, painting, theatre and cinema. This kind of kitsch they tried to Express his contempt for power, its cynicism, lack of humanity, of logic, and to that of cruelty, which was, in their opinion, the cause of the rift between the countries.
a Follower of such direction, as the Dadaism-surrealism, which also denies all aesthetic.
frustration, the sense of meaninglessness of existence, anger and lack of faith in a happy future – here are the reasons for emergence of this trend, denying all laws of the beautiful.
Dada – a style that openly protested the military action and bourgeoisie, seeking to anarchy and communism.
origin of nameFor the name of this course, autoestudio complete meaninglessness and incomprehensibility of what they are doing, the power in those years, it was necessary to find the corresponding word.
Tristan Tzena, trying to find a suitable name for the newly invented style, flip through the dictionary with the languages of the Negro tribes, and came across the word “Dada”.
so, Dada – in the language of the African tribe KRU – a cow's tail. Later it turned out that in some regions of Italy, so called the nurse and mother as well as “Dada” is very similar to baby babble.
Artist decided that the best name for the avant-garde and is not necessary.
the founders of the courseat the same time Dada was born in Zurich and new York, in each country independently from each other. The founders of this anti-aesthetic currents include: poet and dramatist of the German Hugo Ball, Richard Huelsenbeck, Samuel Rosenstock French and Romanian poet (Jewish), more known to the General public under the pseudonym Tristan Tzara German and French poet, a sculptor and painter Jean ARP, German-French artist max Ernest, and Marcel Yanko - Israeli and Romanian artist. All these famous personalities - bright representatives of Dadaism in painting, literature, music and other artistic fields.
a meeting Place that is chosen for the group of creative people has become a "Cabaret Voltaire". The almanac issued by the Dadaists of the time, bears the name of this institution.
Despite the fact that above the individual are the founders that we are discussing currents for decades before its founding the world-famous “school FISMA”, created by artist Arthur Capcom and writer Alphonse Ale in the late nineteenth century, have advanced artistic and musical works, carrying all the main positions of this direction.
a Large part of Bohemia, working in the style of Dadaism, settled in France and in Germany, where it gradually over merged with the avant-garde and surrealism.
Dada in Russia has become famous thanks to famous Moscow and Rostov literary group NICEVT, but by the end of its existence.
in 1923, this area was replaced by new and more appropriate popular sentiments flow. The Dadaists turned expressionists and Surrealists.
Dadaism in paintingthe Most popular form of art in this style is a collage: many artists on the basis of some suitable material, pasted various pieces of colored paper, fabric and other catchy materials.
Dada in painting is futuristic and constructivist in nature, where the preference for artificially created by mechanized objects, rather than the person and his soul.
Fans of this trend with their creativity are trying to destroy the traditional language of culture in the broadest sense of the word.
All the representatives of Dadaism in painting his works completely deny all logical, destroy centuries-old spiritual and social customs, instead of pushing for show pointless, his realistically funny and stupid paintings and collages. However, they are a great success, as fully consistent as the public.
No more closely associated with literature as Dadaism in painting. Artists of the time were often part-time poets that most strongly reflected in their works in these two areas (R. Hausman, G. ARP, C. Schwieters, and F. Picabia).
As mentioned above, a special influence on the future of Dadaists had a school “purisma”.
Representatives of Dadaism learned much from the works of artist Marcel Duchamp, the works were avant-garde orientation in the beginning of his work.
painter in his works gave the main role of everyday, unremarkable objects that to some extent - also Dadaism. Examples of his work – “Grinder for chocolate No. 2” and “the Wheel of the bike”.
with His work the artist, as all the Dadaists, makes fun of the ultimate goal and most important task in art, calling for artistic freedom and madness.
Dada in the sound of music in poetryin Addition to paintings, the Dadaists seized and other areas of creativity. They managed to combine the exhibition of pictures, loud music, reading novels and dancing.
Kurt Schwieters – Dada, who became the inventor of sound poetry, which he calls “good poems". In this form of literary presentation intertwines the story with music, for example, noise show a battle in the poem. Such poems often carried a sense of anti-war and antiburzhuaznoe background. Poets ridiculed them power and established morals.
Also often the audience offered poetic works that were told not words and phrases, and consisted of a set of sounds, letters, shouting and loud music.
Dada – the music brought such famous personalities as: Francis Picabia, Georges Ribemont-DESA, Erwin, Kolhoff, Hans Heusser, albert Savino, Erik Satie. Their compositions wore noisy in nature and showed the animal nature of the society that it was not always clear to the simple inhabitant.
Dancing in this direction was not a set of flowing and connected movements, and the costumes of the dancers were made in the style of zigzag-cubism, which did not add them aesthetics.
Dadaists, the Charter of the national hatred which the war has brought, wanted to combine the creativity of the peoples of the world into one. Favorite destinations in "Cabaret Voltaire" the Bohemians seemed to be the closest to nature, was: African music, jazz and playing the balalaika.
the Arts in GermanyIn Germany, the Dada – it is primarily a political protest, expressed through such and even somewhat underground art.
Art group in the country would vehemently rejected the meaning of creativity, as did the representatives of this style in other States. Here Dadaism was more of a political-social character and showed all the bitterness of the people caused by the war and its aftermath in the devastated and unable to rise from his knees.
Also, the German Dadaists H. Henchy and G. gross in his works he expressed sympathy for Russia, being at that time in a state of revolution.
Dada in the 20th century still brought a significant contribution to art when, Grosz, heartfield, Hausman Heche and developed the montage, and also released a number of political magazines.
in the Summer of 1920 in honor of the end of the war, these intellectuals organizes the fair of Dadaists, which attracts Bohemians from all over the world.
in Germany has been improved collage, as in symbiosis with cubism, it appeared the elements of the montage.
in Addition to the work in the direction of painting, Huisman makes a significant contribution to the literature, presenting a few “abstract” of poems, consisting of just their set of sounds reminiscent of shamanic sizzle.
Parents Dadaist movie think Richter and Agalega.
FranceDada art was very radical expression in France since his birth there had begun before the appearance of the name of this flow.
Predlagaetsya works of famous figures such as Duchamp, Picabia and “poet boxer” - the Caravan.
Latest released magazine “Immediately”, where abused celebrities and doing reviews, which includes invented stories.
there lived the founder of Dadaism Tristan Tzana.
Paris is considered the storehouse of the avant-garde of the time. Erik Satie Picasso, Which has created a controversial ballet that do not fit into the concept of classical values. In this country were constantly Dadaist demonstrations, manifestos, exhibitions and produced a variety of magazines.
Duchamp produces altered famous paintings of the classics. A true masterpiece of Dadaism is considered to be pririsoval antennae Gioconda, which is called “Her unbearable much burning”.
Ernest, in creating his paintings, uses fragments of old engravings. He draws clear to all the images, but they are saturated with black humor.
Tzana brought to the court of public drama “the Gas Heart” that in 1923, causing a rebellion within the Association “Dada” Andre Breton requires a split flow with subsequent formation of surrealism.
In 1924 Tzena recent times is the tragedy of "handkerchief of clouds”.
Dada in new YorkSecond home is considered the current new York, which became a refuge for a huge number of unwanted authorities of other countries artists.
Marcel Duchamp, Francis Picabia, Beatrice wood, and ray Mann of steel heart of Dada United States of America, soon they were joined by Arthur Craven, evading conscription into the army of France. They exhibited their creativity at the gallery of Alfred Stieglitz in the house of the spouses of Arensberg.
new York Dadaists did not organize manifests, they expressed their opinions through publications such as “Blind” and “new York Dada”, where they criticize the tradition, endorsed by museums.
American Dada differed sharply from the European one, he had a political protest, and was based on the humor.
In 1917, Duchamp put on display artists a urinal, on which is taped a sign that reads “Fountain” that brought a shock to all the participants. Forbidden in those days, the sculpture is now considered a monument of modernism.
leaving the company Duchamp's famous Dada collapsed.
In the NetherlandsIn the Netherlands the most famous Dadaists became Theo van Doesburg, which published a magazine called ‘De Stijl”. The pages of this publication he filled with works of famous adherents of avant-garde style.
Together with his friends Stericom and Vilasom Jussara, and with his wife Nelly van Gisberg he created the Dutch company, Dada.
After the death of Giberga it was discovered that in his journal he published his own poems, however, under the pseudonym I. K., Bonnet.
Consequences of DadaismBy the end of 1924 Dadaism as a art ceased to exist. He merged with surrealism and social realism in France and modernism in Germany. It emerged during the period of national despair for many experts rightly called the harbinger of postmodernism.
During the Second World war, most of the artists of the Dada, moved to the United States of America.
Adolf Hitler, recognizing only their ideals, believed the art of “Dada” a degenerate, corrupting the true (in his opinion) of value and unworthy of existence style, so he was persecuted and imprisoned in concentration camps artists who worked in this direction. The bulk of the fall in the German camp artists had Jewish roots, therefore the people were subject to horrible tortures and died.
Echoes of Dadaism and now appear in the anti-artistic and political groups in Bohemia, for example, the "Society of Weblogsbuy". Also popular group "Cumbiamba" rightfully calls himself a follower of Dadaism.
Some writers consider Lenin a member of the club Dada, as he participated in the balalaika orchestra, which pleased the audience in "Cabaret Voltaire" and also he lived for some time near the building, where the assembled representatives of this flow.
occasionally known museums organize exhibitions of works by Dadaist orientation. This exhibition was held in 2006 at the Museum of modern art, located in Paris, in Washington, the National gallery and in the Centre of Georges Pompidou in Paris. Screenings of works in the style of “Dada” is a tribute to artists who died during Nazi Germany.
so let's briefly summarize what it's for current, and determine its basic position.
- Dadaism is an art with a bourgeois and an anti-political orientation. He denies all the realistic, aesthetic and spiritual, copying the behavior of the authorities of the time.
- Painting - the main area in the 20th century, which filled the Dada. The artists who worked in this strength, most often used collage, which combines a variety of bright scraps of material, newspaper clippings and montage.
- Music submitted by followers, is noisy in nature.
- Literature is not very meaningful, the main invention of the Dadaists became the poems in which instead of words use sounds reminiscent of the invocation of the gods of the primitive people.
- Movies and plays this course also illogical and incoherent, have strange names.
- sculptures – this is a common used in the daily life of things. The most famous monument of Dada - it was a urinal, whose author gave it the name “Fountain”.
- choreography style is filled with dancers dressed in ugly costumes.
- the antics of the Bohemians of that time can be called a manifestation of Dada in the culture of behavior.
I Hope we were able to answer all your questions.