Lysippus the sculptor of Ancient Greece, and his works
As started great sculptor?early In his career worked as a regular man of the Lysippus. The sculptor, of course, dreamed of becoming someone great, but he didn't have money for teachers.
Perhaps the sculptor would have remained an obscure man who lived in the IV century BC, if one he had not heard the speech of the painter by the name Evlon. He was assured that the best teacher may be only nature, and not man. The artist, after hearing this speech, made conclusions for themselves and went to observe nature.
Lysippus at the time, learned how to create more realistic sculptures. He made his characters legs longer and head smaller. In addition, Skopas as the artist worked on the transmission of movements in his works.
by the Way, these great sculptors, Scopas, Lysippus are the last representatives of the ancient Greek classical era.
workson the one hand, the classical works of the artist is not rejected. Heroism evident in the work of Lysippus. On the other hand, the innovator of animated sculpture. Figures he gets more dynamic, even dramatic, and the faces resembled the faces of contemporaries.
a Favourite material of his was bronze. Unfortunately, this alloy of copper was often melted down. If not for the Romans, today no one would know who the sculptor Lysippus. His works can be studied only from copies. It is believed that Roman artists more truthfully have been able to recreate a sculpture of athlete of Apoksiomen.
Returning to the specifics of the artist's works, it is worth noting that he portrayed people not as they are but as what they represented himself Lysippus. The sculptor of Ancient Greece loved to work on the characters. In addition, this is the first artist who broke the human body on the plane. Because of this, his work began to look lighter and lively than, say, monumental statues of polyclitus.
Sculpture of LysippusDifficult to understand, looked like the work of the artist during his lifetime. Perhaps the Roman copies would be surprised Lysippus and the sculptor. His works, however today is divided into more and less successful.
most popular include:
- Statue of “Apoksiomen”. This song gained worldwide recognition. Although the motive of works is quite simple: the athlete after the competition cleans your body with a scraper.
- a Sculpture of Herakles. Was immortalized in all the deeds of a hero. Today in the Hermitage Museum you can admire the very first of them. There is a copy of the sculpture “Hercules fighting with a lion”.
- “Vacationer Hermes”. God of Lysippus is very similar to the average person.
- "Eros”. The image is proportional to a child's body.
- Tremendous statue of Zeus Tarente. Work has reached 20 meters in height.
Famous "Apoksiomen"Statue of ‘Apoksiomen” is the most famous work that he left us the legacy of the great Lysippus. The sculptor, a photo confirms it, not just created the statue, but also managed to convey all the emotions of a tired athlete.
Even in the illustration it is evident that Apoksiomen – a young man who is still excited after the fight. It is like stepping from one foot to the other, and the hair removed by hand to one side, allow to guess that the athlete is sweating. The open mouth shows that the athlete has not had time to take a breath, and zabavchik eyes – fatigue.
While critics believe that a marble copy could not convey the depth of the work of Lysippus. Moreover, when in the XIX century, the sculpture was to the Roman restorer of Tenerani, the artist suggested that in the hand of Apoksiomen is dice. Soon, the archaeologists found proof that the original athlete just cleans himself with a scraper. The dice of the work was removed.
Diverse "Hercules"Almost every Greek author was your favorite mythical hero. The Lysippus, in the time we chose Hercules. Critics believe that the artist saw in him their hero-protector. And wonder what quality of Herakles emphasized the ancient sculptor Lysippus?
In some works, the hero fights other sculptures show the tired demigod, the third son of Zeus just resting from the earthly burdens of life. To trace the evolution of Greek heroes on the three works of the author.
- “Hercules fighting with a lion”.
- “Resting Hercules”.
- “Young Hercules feasts on Olympus" (the statue).
according to historians, it is the third statue of a Lysippus gave Alexander the great. The ruler was so pleased with the work that he to death did not part with it.
the Gods in the works of Lysippusthe Gods of Ancient Greece also paid a lot of attention of the great sculptor Lysippus. His work, on the one hand, make the inhabitants of Olympus more alive and close to people, on the other hand, we see immediately that it's the celestials.
For example, “Vacationer Hermes”. the God of trade, and eloquence sits on the edge of a cliff. He was tired, breathing heavily, it seems, is an ordinary man who will now continue the hard way. However, the buckles on his feet give God, you can't go – it can only fly.
a Statue of a Satyr. The face of the horned God reminds the old man. He is bearded, his forehead in deep wrinkles, eyes narrowed. Forest God stood on tiptoe and seems to be somewhere rushed. But if you look closely, you can see that he's dancing his Bacchic dance, only restrained.
Poseidon in the works of Lysippus looks majestic, as befits a master. Thus the artist was able to portray the king of the underwater part of the sea. Wrinkles on the forehead, the curls on the head, hand movements – all reminiscent of a wave.
Very much Zeus of Lysippus distinguished from the background images main Olympic God in the works of other authors. His Zeus is not just the Lord of the world, but also very tragic, and even a tired character. God, on whose shoulders lies a huge responsibility.
Attempt to make baby figure in sculptureAs you know, the artists did not learn to portray children. Usually they were taken as a basis, the face and figure of an adult and it just “reduced”. First in Ancient Greece to break this tradition forward Lysippus. The sculptor portrayed a young Eros is like a child.
Body turned out tender, still undeveloped. The head is longer than that of an adult, plump lips, small mouth and cheeks, - all the evidence suggests that God is still very young.
it is clear that Eros is tense. The boy tries to pull a bow, but it is given to him with great difficulty. Now he was bent, stretched his arms and turned his head.
And then you can trace the discovery of the sculptor-the author depicts the figure in different planes. What gives the statue of depth and space.
Court painter of MacedonContemporaries appreciated and admired the works of the nugget. Could not pass and Alexander the Great himself. The sculptor Lysippus was honored to become the personal painter of Macedon.
unfortunately, our time on merit is impossible to assess the work of the sculptor, depicting the General in full growth. They, like other works have not survived to the present day. Good copies of them, the Romans also made.
Say, the most famous was the sculpture “Alexander with a spear”. Her commander looked towards the left shoulder, left hand leaned on a spear, the right hand was on the side. Later artists often borrowed the motif of this work, depicting kings and generals in the same pose. All the great rulers wanted to be like great.
nowadays, “Alexander with a spear” can be viewed in the Hermitage. There is a replica of the great statue, however, its size does not exceed a few centimeters.
portraitsMore fortunate portraits Alexander the great. Practically the founder of portrait sculpture in Ancient Greece was Lysippus. The sculptor is so expertly portrayed commander that Macedonian did not allow anyone else to do their portraits.
In his works, the great king Lysippus portrayed on the one hand as a strong personality, on the other hand, as a person who lost his peace and confidence. Often the commander looks like a man, much survived, and the order of tired of life.
Sculptor did not idealize their ruler. He portrayed a man, not a classical hero.
Art historians believe that the Lysippus at the time blinded the portraits of Socrates, the seven sages and of Euripides. It was not nature, but made according to the memoirs, descriptions, and early painted portraits.
there's Also reason to believe that the found Roman bronze head, portrait of an unknown athlete, belonged to the hand of the great sculptor. Moreover, it's probably a self-portrait. Here the author showed a simple man with a coarse face.
Recent yearsOur contemporaries difficult to understand what kind of man was the great sculptor Lysippus. The artist is virtually unknown.
According to legend, the ancient author died of hunger an old man. Supposedly Lysippus could not tear himself away from the last sculpture, so forget about the physiological needs.
however, historians believe that with him in the Studio he worked, his students, assistants and sons. Therefore, the exact cause of death of Lysippus is uncertain.
Another legend says that after each successfully sold the works of the great Greek was saving myself for a gold coin. After his death it emerged that more than 1,500 coins.
a multi-Faceted artist's work brought him fame beyond Ancient Greece. Then he began to compare with the greatest classic – Phidias.
Contribution of the sculptor to world cultureSumming up, we can say that the artist is “easy movements of hands” has created a revolution in the art world. It:
- changed the proportions of the body in sculpture, extended arms, reduced the head;
- learned in the movements of his characters to portray their inner impulses;
- tried in the sculpture to portray life itself, with its anxieties and doubts;
- in his work the young heroes face and body like children;
- opened the way for portrait sculpture;
- created the ideal of the human - portrayed characters not for who they are, but as the artist imagined them.
Lysippus was the most famous sculptor of antiquity. In each work, the artist tried to portray the troubled character of his era. And he did it.