Elements of chromatics and coloring. The color wheel

the Secrets of color have long worried about people. In ancient times it received its symbolic meaning. Color became the basis of many scientific discoveries. He not only influenced physics, or chemistry, but also became important for philosophy and art. Over time, knowledge of color became wider. Began to appear of science who study this phenomenon.


the First thing that should be mentioned – the basics of color. The science of color, which contains systematized information from different investigations: physics, physiology, psychology. These areas are studying the phenomenon shades, combining the obtained results with the data of philosophy, aesthetics, history, literature. Scientists long time investigated the color as a cultural phenomenon.

But the colour is a more in-depth study of color, its theory and application in all fields.


no Wonder that these Sciences have long been worried about people. Of course, then there was no such thing as "colour" and "colours". However, the color was given great importance in the culture and development of peoples.
History can we represent a huge reservoir of knowledge about it. Therefore, scientists decided to divide the whole time into two stages: the period up to the 17th century and the time from the 17th century to the present day.


Starting a journey through the history of color, need to go back to the Ancient East. At that time there were 5 primary colors. They symbolized the four cardinal directions and the center of the earth. China has allocated special brightness, naturalness and diversity. Later, everything had changed, and the culture of this country began to be observed monochromatic and achromatic painting.
Even more developed in this regard was India and Egypt. There were two systems: the Trinity, which contained the principal at that time colors (red, black and white); and Medicina was based on the Vedas. The latter system was deepened in philosophy, so it is found in red, symbolizing the Eastern rays of the Sun, white-rays of the South, black-the rays of the West, very black – the beams of the North and the invisible – center.

In India, great importance was paid to the decoration of palaces. Traveling around the world, and now you notice that the often used white, red and gold. Over time, these began to add shades of yellow and blue.

Religion in the color

Western Europe in the Middle ages looked at the basics of science from religion. At that time began to appear different shades that were not previously taken for the major. White came to symbolize Christ, God, angels, black – the underground world and of the Antichrist. Yellow meant the enlightenment and the acts of the Holy spirit, and the red-the Blood of Christ, the fire and the sun. Blue symbolized the sky and the inhabitants of the God, and green – food, vegetation and the life of Christ.
At this time in the middle East colours the same thing happens. Does the effect get Islam. Basically, the color value remains unchanged. The only green becomes the primary and symbolizes the garden of Eden.


Chromatics and coloring again transformirovalsya. Before the second stage comes the era of the Renaissance. At this time, Leonardo da Vinci proclaims its color system. It consists of 6 options: white and black, red and blue, yellow and green. Thus, science is gradually approaching the modern concept of the color.

Newtonian breakthrough

17th century – this is the beginning of a new stage in the classification. Newton uses a spectrum of white color, it reveals all chromatic colors. In science appear a very different vision on this. There is invariably red, to which is added orange, there is green and blue, but together with them are found blue, and purple.

New theory

the 19th century in Europe leads us to naturalism and impressionism. The first style proclaims a full line of colors, shades and tones, and the second is based only on the transmission of images. At this time there painting with the basics of color science.
After there is a theory of Philipp Otto Runge, which distributes the system of the globe. At the equator “globe” is situated a pure primary colors. Upper pole is white, bottom-black. The rest of the space is a mixture and the notes.
Runge is very calculated and is the place to be. Each square on the globe has its own “address” (longitude and latitude), and therefore can be determined by calculation. In the footsteps of scientists went and others who tried to improve the system and create a more convenient option: Chevrel, Goltz, Bezold.

True next

In the modern era scientists have been able to get closer to the truth and to create a modern color model. This was facilitated by features of the style of the time. Creators create their masterpieces, giving great importance to colour. Thanks to him you can Express your vision of art. Color begins to unite with the music. He gets a huge number of shades, even in the case of a limited palette. People have learned to distinguish not only basic colors, but also tone, dimmer, mute, etc.

Modern performance

basic science has led man to the fact that he simplified the previous attempts of scientists. After globe Runge, there was the theory of Ostwald, in which he used a circle of 24 colors. Now the circle remained, but decreased in two times.
Scientist Itten was able to design the perfect system. It consists of 12 colors. At first glance, the system is quite complicated, although to deal with it. Primary colors there are still three red, yellow and blue. There is a color composite of the second order, which can be obtained by mixing three primary: orange, green and purple. Also include a color composite of the third order, which can be obtained by mixing a primary color with a composite second order.

the system

the Main thing you need to know about the range of Ittina is that this system was not just to correctly classify all the colors, but in order to harmoniously unite them. The basic three colors, yellow, blue and red, located in the triangle. This figure inscribed in a circle, on the basis of which the scientist became a hexagon. Now we appear to isosceles triangles, which are placed in a composite color of the second order.

to get the correct shade, you need to keep equal proportions. To get green, you need to combine yellow, blue. To get orange, you need to take the red and yellow. To get purple, mix red and blue.
As mentioned earlier, it is difficult enough to understand the basics of science. Color wheel formed by the following principle. Around our hexagon draw a circle. Divide it into 12 equal sectors. Now we need to fill the cells with primary colors and secondary. They will specify the vertices of the triangles. Empty space must be filled with shades of the third order. Them, as mentioned earlier, obtained by mixing primary and secondary colors.
for Example, yellow with orange creates yellow-orange. Blue with purple-blue-purple, etc.


it is Worth noting that the range of Itena not just helps you create color, but also is beneficial to combine them. It is not just the artists, but also designers, fashion designers, makeup artists, illustrators, photographers, etc.

color Combination can be harmonious, characteristic and uncharacteristic. If you take the opposite colors, they will look harmonious. If you choose colors that occupy the sector through one, we get the typical combinations. And if you choose related colors, which are located in a circle behind each other, you get unusual connections. This theory refers to the sector of seven colors.
In the circle of Itten this principle also works, but slightly differently, so it is worth considering that there are 12 shades. Therefore, to get the two-tone harmony, you should pick tones that are against each other. Tri-color harmony is obtained if the circle fit equilateral triangle, by the same method obtained rectangular harmony, but inside we enter a rectangle. If you put in the circle a square, you get a four-color harmony. Hexagon is responsible for six-color combination. In addition to these options, there are analog harmony, which is formed, if we take the chromatic colors yellow color. For example, we can get yellow, yellow-orange, orange and red-orange.


it Is understood that there is an incompatible color. Although this concept is quite controversial. The thing is that, if you take a bright red and a green, look to symbiosis will be very challenging. Each of them tries to dominate the other, which causes dissonance. Although this example does not mean that it is impossible to harmoniously combine red and green. For this you need to understand the properties of color.
hue – this is the set of colors that belong to the same color spectrum. Saturation – the degree of fading. Lightness – it is an approximation of hue to white and Vice versa. Brightness – the degree of proximity of the hue to black.
Also share chromatic and achromatic colors. The second are white, black and shades of gray. The first – all the rest. All of these properties can affect the compatibility and harmony of colors. If you make the green less bright and a little faded, and the red one to make calmer, due to the increase in lightness, these two supposedly incongruous shade will harmoniously unite.

Child view

the foundations of science for children should be constructed in the form of a game, as, in principle, and all the training. Therefore, it is worth remembering the famous phrase about the spectral colors: “Every Hunter Wants to Know Where Sits the Pheasant”. For those adults who are unfamiliar with this children's life hack, need to clarify that the first letter of each word in this sentence is the name of the colours in the spectrum. That is, the led is red, then orange, yellow, green, blue, Indigo and violet. These are the colors that are in the rainbow in the same sequence. So the first thing a child draw a rainbow.

When the baby is little and, of course, does not know what elements of chromatics, it is better to buy him coloring books with examples. This is done in order to paint the sky in grey, and the grass red. Later you will see that baby will be able to identify colors, but better with him to discuss possible options.


for a very long time scientists have been able to understand that any shade of the base color can affect a person's emotions. First mentioned by Goethe in 1810. Later, scientists found that the human psyche is tied to external reality and, therefore, color perception can also affect emotions.

Next step in this study was the discovery that every tone is assigned a specific emotion. Moreover, this theory manifests itself almost from birth. It also became clear that there is a color code that relates to a number of emotions. For example, sadness, fear, fatigue, all can be described in black or gray. But the joy, interest, shame or love are usually associated with a red tint.
in Addition to the psychological effects color has studied under clinical supervision. It turned out that red excites, yellow braces, green reduces the pressure, while blue calms. Also it all depends on the properties of the tint. If it is quiet red, he can symbolize joy and love, if dark and bright-blood and aggression.

principles of chromatics and the colour is a very complex science. They are difficult to understand, as everything here is pretty relative and subjective. A single color may be affected differently, some people and not subservient shades. Some artist may seem to be a combination of purple and yellow is very harmonious, another – disgusting and contradictory.