The primary and secondary colors: description, title and combinations

Using a diverse range of shades, people do not think about such categories as color. It is formed by the refraction of ordinary light, which represent electromagnetic waves of various lengths. Once in a different medium, they are refracted at different angles, laying out seven spectral colors.

What color?

the First such experience was done by Newton. Rainbow after the rain is also a refraction of sunlight passing through drops of water. Missing facilities in a collective lens you can see these seven colors combine back into white.

Surprisingly, in nature there is no color – it is the visual sense of a man under the influence of electromagnetic waves falling on the retina. The color appears in the reflection the subject of a specific wavelength, characteristic of the impinging beam. Although this perception is quite subjective, all people have it the same way. A person sees a leaf is green because the leaf surface, absorbing light rays of different lengths, reflected waves of a particular portion of the spectrum, which corresponds to green color.

Value life

nevertheless, color is an important characteristic of the subject, one of its physical properties and plays a huge role in human life. The hue of the object is crucial in many fields of activity: painting, trade, design, architecture. Its value was understood even in ancient times. Talking about this beautiful architectural monuments of France and Italy, have retained the magnificent stained glass Windows and wall paintings, which were distinguished by brightness and strength. Chinese ceramics in the XII century was famous for the incredibly beautiful shades of moonlight and the sea waves. Paintings by famous artists are also unusual colors. Each of them in his manner was a combination of different colors, getting unique tones that are difficult to reproduce.

Man draws up to 80 % of the information about the object with color, which is also a factor of deep physical and psychological effects on the body. Some tone contribute to high blood pressure and heart rate, while others calm the nervous system. In medicine, there is a section of color therapy, the essence of which is that colors act differently on the human body. According to the principles of Eastern medicine to treat every disease used a certain tone.

Classification colors

Since ancient times, were attempts at the classification of colors. The procedure consisted in reducing the variety of existing colors in a certain system. For the first time such an attempt was carried out by Leonardo da Vinci, highlighting four main color groups. The scientific basis of the concept of color laid Newton his experiments on refraction of light rays. The great poet Goethe, working on the systematization of this concept, proposed a color circle in which the three tones (major) be an equilateral triangle – red, yellow and blue. If you mix them in equal proportions, you get black shade. They are called primary colors.

base formed Of the three other colors. But directly key cannot be obtained by mixing any other colors, so they are called pure. To understand which colors are secondary, it is necessary to mix the base pairs in equal proportions. Thus obtained colors of the second order. They are located between the main. Orange, green and purple-a secondary color. color wheel they likewise form an equilateral triangle, but inverted relative to the first.

Tertiary colors

There are the colors of the third order – they are formed by mixing the three primary with the secondary in equal proportions. Primary, secondary and tertiary colors together form a 12-color circle. This piece is called 12-frequency circle. Itten – Swiss art historian, who suggested this innovation. The rest of the variety of colors you get when you mix twelve of these in the right proportions.

Colors can be divided into warm and cold. If in the middle of the color circle to draw a straight line, then that half, which would be yellow with shades of green, including the primary and secondary colors will be warm colors, and the second half – from a cold. This division is somewhat arbitrary, since in the tertiary colors, which combines all the tones, the warmer will appear to be one in which the yellow more.


In art, design, architecture, the art of hairdressing it is important to find colors, causes more positive perceptions. The science of nature colors, art of combinations called color schemes. The ability to combine tones allows you to achieve color harmony. At the same time, a similar concept to each person individually – is a subjective concept. However, there are General rules of a harmonious combination of different shades that need to be mastered in some professions. For example, in the design of production facilities should consider the colors: the primary and secondary colors, warm tones, accelerate metabolism, increase muscle activity. As for the cool colors, they inhibit these processes. Some of them with long-term human exposure to tire of it, no matter what – secondary colors or primary. The most optimal in this respect are the green colors with the addition of yellow.

color Combination

Guided by the color wheel, you can properly choose the right combination of the different tones. Would be perfectly composed combination of shades of one color, as it has beneficial effects on the nervous system. Possible contrast composition. In this case, the combination of those tones which are placed on opposite sides of the circle (by the way, it could be secondary colors). They are called complementary or complimentary. Such a system will be filled with energy. Harmony in the color wheel colors that are relative to each other at an angle of 90 degrees.

Well will look together for three colors, if they choose the right. The composition of the three colours equally spaced from each other, will give a sense of harmony and bright contrast. In such cases, you can use secondary colors. If the inside color of the circle draw an isosceles or equilateral triangle that correctly combine the colors located at the vertices of this shape. In colour there are clear rules of combination of colors. Guided by these principles, you can create different combinations, characterized by harmony and beauty.