What is monumental artIn modern schools the pupils of the senior classes are taught is very important and necessary subject called “art history”. The MCC course tells students about the masterpieces of architecture and fine arts from ancient times to the present day. The program includes such a section, as monumental art. We now take a closer look.
What is monumental art?This special section fine art distinct plastic or meaning of an architectural work, as well as the importance and significance of the ideological content. The word "monumental" comes from the Latin moneo, which means “remind you”. And no wonder, because this type of art – one of the oldest on earth.
History of monumental artthe Roots of this type of architecture and painting date back to primitive society. The ancient people had learned to draw, clumsily held in his fingers the piece of coal, but their works are the monumental painting on cave walls was already impressed. Of course, they were drawn ugly, lots of paint was missing, but was present sense. It was the view of ancient people about the forces of nature, its own life, different skills. Therefore, the walls of the caves were decorated with various scenes from the life of primitive man: extraction of a mammoth, the most beautiful woman in the cave, the ritual dance around the fire and many, many others.
Primitive society gave way to the Ancient world, and there is monumental work also found its place. In Ancient Egypt this art was highly respected and loved. This is what we say extant sphinxes and the pyramids of Egypt. In the Renaissance there was a rise of monumental architecture. The light appeared such masterpieces as statue of David the picture “the Creation of Adam" and painting the ceilings the Sistine chapel. All these works are executed by the genius of his time – Michelangelo Buonarroti.
In the late 19th-early 20th century art is on a new path. The most popular style of “modern” reflected in the work, causing the most monumental works were executed in this direction. This has particularly affected the painting and are reflected in the works of such artists as M. Vrubel, M. Denis and others. But was not forgotten, and architecture, are at work of such sculptors as E. Bourdelle and A. Maillol. Their hands were created most works in the genre of monumental sculpture we admire and admire to this day.
Greatest development and recognition of this art form in the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union set itself Napoleonic plans, and imposing monuments and pedestals could not be better reflected her ideas. Impressive, high, skyrocketing statues reflect the courage and fortitude of the workers of that time.
Examples of this kind of artthis includes both the architectural and pictorial works. Monumental art includes mosaics, frescos, statues and busts, sculptures and various decorative compositions, stained glass Windows and even… fountains. Now you can see how much this includes works of art. No wonder that around the world, created thousands of museums, where the admiration of the exhibited panels, busts and sculptures of different eras and generations.
Variety of productsthis includes two kinds of art: sculpture and fine art. Monumental-decorative painting usually is a variety of murals, wall paintings, bas-reliefs, etc. They serve as a decoration of the environment and necessarily part of any ensemble, being its important part. In the monumental painting distinguish a variety of techniques: this is a fresco, stained glass, mosaic etc. it is Worth noting that monumental painting is specially created for her design or real estate construction.
the Era of the Soviet Union and this type of creativityMonumental art were highly valued in the Soviet Union. It contributes to the development of artistic taste, education of moral and Patriotic feelings to their Homeland. It is emotionally enriching, giving you look at him, unforgettable memories that will forever be in our hearts and the hearts of both children and adults. Soviet monumental art is characterized by humanism and art organization. Works of art and architecture designed in an appropriate style could be found everywhere: near schools and kindergartens, factories and parks. Managed to build monuments even in the most unusual places.
This form of art became widespread after the October revolution, when they built a new country with new laws, orders and socialism. It was then that monumental works of art received special recognition in the nation. All painters, sculptors, architects was engulfed in the rush to create a masterpiece of monumental art, to show that time has changed, it is a new life, a new household way, new discoveries in science and new art form.
Immortal workOne of the most memorable creations of those times was the magnificent monumental sculpture by Vera Mukhina "worker and kolkhoz woman” who embody the hard work and heroism of the Soviet people. The history of the monument is very interesting and informative. In 1936 he completed the construction of the Palace of Soviets, the top of which was supposed to be a monument "worker and collective farm”. To create sculptural constructions selected the best masters, among whom was Vera Mukhina. They were given two months and said that the statue should represent two figures – worker and collective farm. The same idea four sculptor fulfilled in completely different ways. Someone figures calmly and serenely stood, someone on the contrary, rushed forward furiously, as if seeking someone to beat. And only Mukhina, Vera Ignatyevna captured in their work the beautiful moment started, but not finished movement. Her work was approved by the Commission. Today, the monument "worker and collective farm” is under restoration.
a Monumental painting: examplesAs mentioned above, art of this type is rooted in ancient times. Already then created the magnificent drawings on the walls of caves, depicting the process of the hunt, ancient rituals, etc.
Monumental and decorative painting is divided into several types:
- Fresco. This image is created on moist plaster a few types of paints that are derived from the pigment in powder form. During the drying of a paint film is formed that protects the work from external impact.
- Mosaic. The pattern is laid out on the surface of small pieces of glass or colored stones.
- Tempera. Works of this type are made paint from pigment of vegetable origin, diluted in egg or oil. As a painting, applied to wet plaster.
- Stained glass. Similar to the mosaic, laid out pieces of colored glass. The difference is that the pieces are interconnected spikes, and the end result is placed in the window opening.
Monumental architecture: masterpieces of world artGood sculptors at all times valued at its weight in gold. Therefore, the world was enriched by such works as triumphal arch, located in Moscow, monument to Peter 1 "the bronze horseman" the sculpture of David made by Michelangelo and are in the Louvre, the beautiful statue of Venus, which cut off hands, and many others. These types of monumental-decorative art fascinate and attract the attention of the millions, they want to enjoy again and again.
There are several types of architecture of this type:
- Monument. Usually it is a sculpture of one or more people standing still or frozen in any position. Made from stone, granite, marble.
- Monument. The stone commemorates some event of history, for example world war II or the great personality.
- Stella. This type of architecture is a slab of stone, granite or marble, standing vertically and having any inscription or figure.
- Obelisk. It the pillar, consisting of four faces pointed upward.